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TEDIM PAU ONG PIANNA Dr James Suan Za Dong MB,BS., D.O. Sydney, Australia

Kampau in ong kinai sak in, ong gawm khawm aa, minam khat ong suak sak hi. Pau om masa lo-in minam om thei lo hi. Minam kician khat i hih nadingin, pau, athupipen khat ahi hi. Tua ahih ciangin, i taang pau, i Tedim pau bangci bangin ong piang khia cih i theih ding thupi hi.

Mi pawlkhatte-in “Tedim pau pen, Tedim ah i teen khop ciangin pau nam tuamtuam kigawmna pan ong piang khia hi “ ci-in agen, lai aa a-at uh i za, i sim kha zeelzeel hi. Hih pen athupi mahmah Tedim mi nampi khat ii taang-pau, i common dialect, i Tedim pau, ong pian khiatna taangthu laai-gil hi aa, zaangkhai laak lo-in, limtak ngaihsunin i etcian phat ding thupi kasa hi. Tangthu siksanin, logical, theithei dingin i enpha ding hi.

Pau tuamtuam azang minam tuamtuamte ateen khopna panin taang pau, lingua franca, khat ong pian khiat theihna dingin anuai aa thu nihte lak ah khat zawzaw hang ahi hi.

I. Pau tuamtuam kigawmna panin pau thak nam khat, taang-pau common dialect in ong piang khia ( evolved ) thei hi. Hih pen haksa mahmah ban ah sauveipi, kum a-tulin akiteen khop, khit ciangin damdamin piang thei bek hi. Piang mengmeng nawn lo hi
II. Pau tuamtuam kigawmna panin a thahatpen khat, taang-pau ong suak thei hi. Amasa sangin hun tomzaw tham la hi. Tu mahmahin zong piang piang lai hi.

I. PAU TUAMTUAM KIGAWMNA PAN PAU NAM KHAT ONG PIAN KHIATNA‘Tedim ah i ten khop ciangin pau tuamtuam kigawmna panin Tedim pau ong piang khia hi’ i cih ciangin, “pau-kee tuamtuam, (Teizang, Saizang, Sihzang, Zo, Thado pau, ctp.,(cihtepawl) kigawmna pan, a-om ngei nai lo, kam-pau thak (Tedim pau), ong piang khia tawm, ‘evolved,’ hi “ cih nopna ahi hi. Ahi thei ding mah hiam?, akizuun mawk hiam? limtak i enpha ding hi.

Bang ci bangin pau nam tuamtuam kigawm khopna pan kam-pau thak nam khat, evolution, tawh ong piang khia tawm thei hiam cih i theih masak kul hi. Hih pen piang mengmeng lo-in, hun sawtpi kisam hi. Mang pau, English, hih bangin ong piang khia ahi hi.

English pen Germanic peoples ahi, Angles, Saxon, Jutes, Frisii leh Franks-te ban ah Latin pau azang Roman Empire mite tawh Migration hun lai aa kipan kum tul nih dektak sung ki hel zau-in ateen khopna pan un ong piang khia, evolved, kam pau thak, English language, ahi hi.

Hih mite kum tampi sung ong om khop zau uh ciangin 5th Century panin 11th Century dong, ( kum 600) khit ciangin Old English ong piang khia zo pan hi. Tua khit, Middle English pen 11th pan 15th Century dong ( kum 400 ), tua zawh ciangin 15th pan 17th Century dong ( kum 200 ) khit ciangin Early Modern English ong piang pan aa, tuni aa ki zangh Modern English pen 17th Century pan tu ciang , kum 300 val bang hun saupi la hi. A vekin, tua pau nam tuamtuamte kigawmna pan kum 1500 val khit ciangin, tuni aa kizangh English pau piicingtakin, ong suak khia, evolved, zo pan ahi hi. (History of the English language, Wikipedia Encyclopedia; Cecigani Fousto 1981, Mallory, JP 2005 and Simek, Rudolf 2007 te ki-etkak )

Hi bang aa ong pian khiat theih nadingin ateen khop hun lai-un, sumzuak-sumlei, trades, leh Roman galkap sung ah nasepna cihbangin kihel-kigawm khopna hoih mahmah nei uh hi. Lai zong nei khin uh hi. Pau kigawm theih nadingin, trades, sumzuak-sumleina athupipen khat ahi hi. Tua bang hi napi, Angles, Saxon, Jutes, Frisii, Franks leh Latin mite pau kigawmin pau thak nam khat ahi, English, piicingtak aa, ong pian khiat nading kum 1500 val kisam mawk hi.

Tua ahih leh, Tedim ah Zomite i pau tuamtuam kigawmin pau picingtaak khat ahi, ‘Tedim pau’ ong pian khiat nading zah dongin bang tanvei Tedim ah i teeng khawm ngei hiam?, i ‘suulzuih’ ding hi

Ciimnuai aa kipan tu ciang, hun thumin i khen ding hi. 1. Tedim kisat maa, (Pre-Tedim); 2. Tu-maa aa Tedim, ahk.(ahih keh),Tedim Masa (Former Tedim), 3. Tulaitak aa Tedim (Today Tedim) ci-in khenin i en ding hi.

1. Tedim kisat-maa : ( Pre-Tedim ) : Hih hun pen, Ciimnuai i teen lai 1569 kiim [ Dr E H East-Burma Manuscript, page 123. (1400 kiim a-ummawh zong om hi )] pan Tedim Masa akisat 1750 kum ( pawl khatte’n, 1600 ) sung teng ahi hi. Ciimnuai ah khang giat akiteen khit ciangin mun tuamtuam ah ki lal khia hi. Tu aa Tedim khua mun pawlteng ah nidang pekin, Thahdote, Vaipheite, Guite, Ganghte, Thawmte, Kawmte, mun tuam ciat ah hun tuamtuam sungin nateeng ngei uh hi. Tual gal om hun lai ahih ciangin, khat leh khat kikihta-in teeng khawm lo uh hi. Khuangzang, Sekzang, Phuaizang leh adang mun tuam-tuam ah na teng uh hi. Tedim kisat maa, Pre-Tedim hunin i pau ki gawm lo hamtang ding hi.

2. Tumaa Tedim ahk. Tedim-Masa : ( Former Tedim ) : Hih pen Tedim kisat pan kipan, Mangkang kumpi-in Tedim ahal ciang sung teng ahi hi. ‘Tedim’ ci aa min aphuak Thadote hi dingin tangthu kan pawlkhat-in um uh hi. Bang hanghiam cih leh, ‘Te’ cih pen Vansangdim bual tui-in nitang lengin ‘te’ cihna hi in, ‘dim’ pen Thado pau-in ‘bual tui’ cihna ahih ciangin, Tedim min Thado-te phuah hi dingin um uh hi. Thadote-in zong tuni dong mah, “Tedim, ko khua hi” ci liuliau lai uh hi.

Guite Pu Gui Mangin, na sat in Tedim na phuak hi zong kici hi. Zote Pu Em Do in zong sat ngei aa mi dang zong om lai hi. “Khukpi, ko Thawmte khuat hi” ci-in a-angtanpih zong om taleuleu hi. Hih hun sung ii atuung, earlier, lamin kiteeng zeel ahih hangin gal leh sa hangin, ki lawi zeelzeel hi. Anunung lam, later, hun ciang bekin hoih takin kiteeng khawm pan hi. Ahih hangin Mangkang kumpi-in ong hal ciangin hih Tedim Masa ong bei leuleu hi. Zomi kuamah teeng nawn lo in Mangkang kumpi-in ong la hi.

Hih Tedim Masa hun pen (i) Earlier Former-Tedim leh (ii) Later Former-Tedim ci-in i khen ding hi.

(i) Earlier Former-Tedim : Tedim-Masa ii atuunglam, 1750-1840 : Hih pen,Tedim kisat pan kipan, Pu Kam Hau, Pu Mang Gin leh Pu Khoi Lamte ( atomin, MKK ) makai-in ong uk maa hun teng ahi hi. Tedim kisat maa hunte mah bangin, gal leh sa tam lai ahih manin kiteeng suak zo lo-in kinusia kik zeelzeel hi. Tua ahih manin, “Tedim ah tap kuavei kiluak hi” ci-in khangluite-in na gen uh hi. Teeng suak zo lo-in giatvei na lal uh ahih ciangin, Tedim-Masa ii atuunglam, Earlier Tedim hun sungin zong i pau-te kigawm lo ding hi.

(2) Later Former-Tedim : Tedim-Masa ii anunung lam, (MKK)te-in ong uk hun, 1840-1889 : Hoihtak leh nuamtakin khuapi lian khat asuah dong Tedim ah amasapen akiteen khop hun ahi hi.

1800 kiim pawl aa kipan Tedim ah tawmtawmin kiteng kik aa, gal launa ong tawm-zaw ta ahih manin, kilawi nawn lo-in khang to semsem hi. Ahih hangin Pawi gal, Meitei gal ki lauthawng lai simsim ahih manin, Falam gam Dalang hausapa, Pu Khuangceu tawh akimeltheih, Pu Kam Hau, Tedim hausa dingin Mualbem pan kizol aa, 1840 kum aa kipan Pu Mang Gin leh Pu Khoi Lam-te tawh (MKK) ong makaih uh ciangin Dimtui vang khua, inn 300 val aphak dong ngaihmuangtakin Tedim ah kiteng khawm hi. Hih pen minam-kee tuamtuamte Tedim ah kihelzau-in ngaihmuang-takin i ten khop amasapenpen hun ahi hi.

Ahih hangin kum 50 bek sawt hi. 1889 kum ciangin gamkeek Mangkang kumpi-in Tedim haal ( Dr Desmond’s Kelly’s Burma Campaign, page 29 ) ahih manin kinusia-in, ‘Dimtui vang khau-inn 300 val, Tedim – Masa (Former-Tiddim) ong bei ta hi. Tedim khua anunungpen akilawihna ahi hi.
Hih hun tomno, kum 50 sung bekin i pau tuamtuamte kigawmin Tedim pau khat ong piang tawm, evolved, thei lo ding hi. Banghang hiam cih leh ei sangin, atamzaw, sumzuak-sumleina leh lai anei khin, aki helzauzaw, Europe gam mite nangawn kum tul nih dektak ateen khopna sung uah, Mangpau-aluui, Old English, ong pian nading bek nangawn kum 600 val kisam hi. Tua nangawn, apiicing Mangpau, English, hi nai lo lai hi.

I pau-kee tuamtuamte kigawmin pau nam khat, Tedim pau, ong pian khiat nadingin kum 600 sangin sauvei la zaw kaan lai ding hi. Bang hanghiam cihleh, trades i nei kei hi. Lai i nei kei hi. Amimal mahmah i tawm hi. Kum 50 sung bek kihelzau-in Tedim ah i teeng khawm ngei hi. Tedim-Masa ii anununglam, MKK hun, kum 50 sung bekin, pau nam khat piang khia thei lo ding hi.

3. Tu-aa Tedim hun : ( Today-Tedim ), 1910 pan tuni dong : A nihveina nuamtak i teen khopna : Gam-keek Mangkang kumpi-in Tedim ong haal ciangin Tedim masa ong bei-in kum sawm nih sung Tedim ah Zomi ateeng om lo-in kinusia hi. 1891 kumin Tedim ong la (KBC), aa, ong tonpih uh anasem Gorkhate, Kala sumbuk bawlte leh Sen inn lam thei khutsiamte bek na teeng uh hi.Tua hunin Tedim ah Golkha pau leh Urdu pau bek kizang hi.

Tu laitak aa i Tedim khuapi ( Today Tedim ) ah, 1910 kiim aa kipanin Zomite tawmtawmin kiteeng kik panpan hi. Tua Zo mite, Losau minam-kee, Pu Neng Thawng, Teizang minam-kee Pu Pau Za Kam, Saizang minam-kee Pu Gin Thual, Pu Thang Langte, leh Khuano minam-kee, Pu Thawng Cin ( tawmvei khit ciangin, ciah kik ) te Tedim ah nateeng masa uh hi.

Pu Neng Thawng Gawngmual khua pan hi aa, Lamzang-Losau pau ( Lai i neih ciangin Kamhau pau kici ) na zang hi. Pu Pau Za Kam, Teizang pau, Pu Gin Thual leh Pu Thang Langte, Saizang pau, Pu Thawng Cin, Khuano pau na zang ciat uh hi. Tua zawh kum thum, 1913 ciangin, Lamzang-Losau pau ahi, Kamhau pau tawh Zolai ki bawl hi.( anuai ah acingzaw-in) Hih kum thum hun sung bekin i kigawmna pan pau athak, Tedim pau, ong piang lo ding hi.

Tua hi aa, Tedim ki sat maa aa kipan, Tedim Masa (Former Tedim) hun nih sung ahi zongin, Tuni aa Tedim ( Today-Tedim) hun sung ahi zongin, i pau tuamtuamte kigawmin Tedim Pau ong pian, evolve, theih nading zahin hun, mun leh thu om ngei lo hi.

II. PAU TUAMTUAM KIGAWMNA PAN AHATPEN TAANG-PAU ONG SUAHNA:Tu aa ih taang-pau ‘ Tedim pau’ thu i gen ciangin, Losau-Lamzang thu gen loh phamawh hi. Banghang hiam cih leh, i taang-pau, Tedim Dialect, pen akhanglui mahmah Losau-Lamzang mite pau-awkaih ahi hi. “Lamzang aphat lai-in inn 700 ciang pha in Guite Pu Mang Sum in Ukpi sem hi. A sialkong aa asuan mawng kung tu-in po lai hi” ci-in kum 87 apha Pu Lo Za Khen leh Pu Thang Khen Cinte-in Rev Thang Khawm Pau tung ah 23.05.2014 ni-in a interview-na ah gen uh hi. Tedim inn 300 aphak ma pekin, Lamzang inn 700 na pha khin ahih ciangin, akhanghaam mahmah khua lian khat ahi hi.

Lamzang pen Geeltui tawh ki khan-gual hiamhiam dingin ki-um hi. A mite zong, Teizang, Saizang, Sihzang, Zo, ctp.(cihtepawl); tawh Ciimnuai hun lai pekin a om khinsa, Lamzang (Losau) minam-kee ahi hi. Tangthu aa kigen, Phucil leh Nan Tal zong Lamzang ah na teng uh hi. Nan Tal asih ciangin a zi, Nei No (Ni No zong kici) in la phuak aa,: “ Nan Tal na han tualzaang ah ee, Sialcing naupang lam nalingling ee//, Nan Tal nong lam ding sang ee “ (Rev. Dr Go Za Kham kiangpan) Hih hun lai pek aa kiphuak lamalte i et ciangin tuni aa Losau pau mah na hi khin hi.

Hun khat lai-in Lamzang Hausa Pu Thang Go in a zikik leh a tate nih tawh Losau khua (anihveina) na sat hi (Zomi Encyclopedia- Sia Pum khan Nang) Losau pen Lamzang khua gei hi aa, amite zong Lamzang pan mah ahih ciangin, Losau mite Lamzangte/Lamzangte Losaute mah ahi hi ( Pu Lo Za Khen 23.05.2014). Tua ahih manin, khanglui, upa mite-in, Lamzang awkaih azang, Anlang, Gawng, Kansau, Lailui, Ngennung, Thangkhal, Tonzang, Tuithang, Suangsaang, ctp., ‘Losau mi – Lamzangmi’ na ci uh hi. ( Pi Ging Zen, No. 1, Pu Vum Tual,. No. 2, Page 6 leh Pu Dam Khupin agen, atupa, Pu Kham Go Pau zakna bang, Pu Kham Zen, ctp. …. )

Lamzang pen awkaih akibatpih, Anlang, Gamlai, Gawng, Lailui, Mauvom, Ngennung, Ngalbual, Taaklam, Tonzang, Tuithang, ctp., khua 30 valte sung ah akhangluipen, a-uhaampen, abulpi, aphungpi ahi hi.

Losau-Lamzang mite amimal limlimin tam, (khua 30 val) hi. A awsuah uh neem hi. Teitangin navaak uh hi. Mi pawlbawl siam uh hi. Kipawl khawm thei uh hi. Thu khual uh hi. A pau uh thakhauh hi.

J H Cope Topa 1910 kumin Tedim ong tun khit ciangin “ Zolai ong bawlsak ding aa aki pat, hunin Kam Hau uk kici i gam sung ah pau nam 10 val bang na om khin hi. Tuate-in: Teizang, Khuano, Phaileng, Losau, Paihte, Dim, Saizang, Zo, Thahdo, Hualngo, cihte ahi hi. ( ‘Tedim pau tawh Zolai ki bawl cilna’ Pi Luan Za Cing )

Zolai aki bawl ding ciangin, siahkai tingteng, Thahdo, Zo leh Paihte hausa gukte-in Tedim khua sung aa kizangh pau tawh bawl ding adeih uh ciangin, (Pu Ngul Lang’ Diary), Cope Topa-in Tedim khua sung aa kizangh pau tawh ong bawl sak hi. Tedim khua sung ah bang pau kizangh cih, i en ding hi.

Tedim kiim teng ah Losau pau-awsuah azang tingteng Gawng, Lamzang, Lailui, Ngennung, Thangkhal khuate leh, Lamzang-Losau tawh awsuah akinaipen, Saizang pau azang, Teklui, Lailo, Tualzang, Sezang, leh Saizang khuate-in Tedim uumcihin om diimdiam uh hi. Tedim pen Mangkang Vuandok zum omna leh sumbuk om masakna khua ahih ciangin, vanlei ding, vanzuak ding, zum vai leh apai, ahawh mawkmawk dingin hih khuate panin ki nilehin nisimin Tedim nawksuk-nawkto uh ahih manin, Tedim khua sung ah Losau, (Lamzang) pau leh Saizang pau akizangpen pau ahi hi.

Tua hun, 1910 kiimin Kamhau Uk sung ah, Tedim Pau cih om lo hi. ( Atung ah, Tedim pau tawh Zolai kibawl cilna.) Om hi leh, na kihel hamtang ding hi. Tua ban ah, Mangkang kumpi-in, i ngeinate ong kem suak sak lai-in, siahtung-siahphei zong ong pia sakin, Kamhau upadi zong ong zang sak lai ahih ciangin, ‘Tedim Pau’ om hileh, ‘Tedim Dialect’ na ci ding hi. Tua tham lo-in, Tedim aa omte-in zong na deih, na kal ding uh hi. Om lo ahih manin, Tedim khua sung aa kizangh Losau (Lamzang) pau tawh Zolai kibawlin,‘ Kamhau Dialect ’ na kici hi.

Pau-kee tuamtuamte lak pan Losau-Lamzang pau ong thahatpen hi. Tu-ni aa i Tedim khua sung ah akizang masapen pau khat ahi hi. Cope Topa-in Tedim khua sung ah kizangh Losau pau tawh Zolai abawl ciangin, Losau mi, Gawngmual khua Sia Cin Lang in na huh hi. ’Kamhau Dialect’ ci-in saang ah kisin sak ahih manin official dialect, ong suak aa, zum lai leh laipai khempeuh Kamhau pau kizangin, i gambup ii taang pau ong suak hi. Tua hun lai-in Kamhau gambup pen tu aa Tedim gam, Tonzang gam leh Kansau gamteng khempeuh ahi hi.

1948 kum, Independence i ngah khit ciangin, hun ong kikheelin ‘Kamhau’ cih sangin damdamin, i gambup a-uk Vuandok zum omna, ‘Tedim’ ong minthang zaw semsem aa, Subdivision ong suah ciangin ‘Tedim pau’ ci-in ong nung-pian ahi hi.

’Tedim pau’ cih kammal, tangthu tawh i et ciangin, 1948 khit ciangin damdamin ong piang hi pan aa, khangmoi mahmah hi. Kamhau Gam ii pau-in Kamhau pau ahih mah bangin, Kamhau, Tedim tawh i laih ciangin, ‘Tedim pau’ zong ‘Tedim Gam bup ii, i taang pau ahi hi.

Et kikna : 1. Earlier part of Former Tedim hun : Kiptak kiteeng lo-in, ‘tap kuavei kiluak’ hi Tap kuavei ki luak ahih ciangin giatvei, gal kitai hi ding hi. I pau kigawm man lo ding hi. 2. Later part of Former Tedim hun : kum 50 sung bek nuamtakin kiteeng khawm hi. Kampau khat kum 50 sung bekin, evolve, thei lo ding hi. 3. Today-Tedim, (Tuni – aa i Tedim), hun : Tedim akiteen zawh kum thum ( 1910-1913) khit ciangin, Kamhau (Losau) pau-in lai i nei hi. Kum thum sungin, Losau, Saizang, Teizang pau pan pau nam khat piang khia, ‘evolved’ lo ding hi.

Hih teng i et cing dimdem khit ciangin, ‘Tedim pau’ i cih, pen, akigen mawkmawk bangin “Tedim ah i teen khopna pan ong piang khia pau hi phiingphiing lo hi. Ciimnuai laipekin a-omsa, Losau pau hi aa, Phucil, Nan Tal, Nei No-te zong Lamzang-Losau pau-in la na kiphuah khin uh hi. (Neino-in Nan Tal a la phuah)

Lamzang – Losau minam-kee thu, ka tuah khak ngei thu nih :
1. Ka neu lai, Tuu-aa Tedim (Today Tedim) ah inn 30 val bek ka phak lai-un, ong peemta, Pi Ging Zen pen numei pilvaang, tangthu-tuanthu athei mahmah nupi khat ahi hi. Amuiciai ciangin, ko Tedim naupangte ong phin thei zeel aa, “ Hei, Tedim naupangte, kiphasak kei un, Losau mi ka hi uh! Tedim bulpite ka hi uh maw ! ” ong ci thei zeel hi. Ni khat, Ginpi (Kim Khua Gin) leh ‘NaSuan (Nang Za Suan) hehin “ Lo nei beek kei uh teh; na huan uh lah sau pet kei “ acih uh leh suang tawh deen ong sawm mawkin deel zeenin ka tai keek uh hi. A mau Suangsaang khua pan ong peem uh hi aa, awkaih pen, Lamzang-Losau i cih te ahi hi. Tedimte’ bul, ‘Losau hi’, ci hi. ‘Tedim pau ii abuipi Losau pau hi’ zong, aci hipah hi.

2. 1948 kum, Independence ih ngah khit ciangin, Tedim gam ah amasa pen Party nih mee tawh kiteelna om aa, tua hun laitakin Pu Vum Tual Tedim ong pai khat tawh kituak hi. Ka pa, Gin Thual, tung. “ Hih pen Thu Hoih Vaihawm Pawl ( THVP ) leh Khamtung Suahtak Vaihawm Pawl ( KSVP ) kiteelna hi aa THVP te pen Lamzang mi – Losau mite-in panpih zawdiak in tua lo tengin KSVP panpih uh hi. Kei zong Lamzang – Losau mi hi’ng. Ahi zongin ke’n ka mee-tang ……- te pia ning” ci hi. ‘Losaumi ‘ akicih ciangin, suang tawh deen ong sawm pi Ging Zen’ khuapih sa-in kihta sim pian pah ka hih manin ka mangngilh thei ngiat kei hi.

Pu Vum Tual pen Kansau khuate hi aa, Losau-Lamzang pau awkaih azang khuate khat ahi hi. Tapidaw suak masa, a khua ah Pawlpi keem sia hi-in Tedim ah Sangmang F O Nelson tawh ki mu dingin ong pai sialin ko inn ong tung den hi. Mite thudot, tangthu aciing mi pil khat zong ahi hi. Kansaute Losau-Lamzang mi hi ci hi. Kansaute pau zong Losau-Lamzang pau hi aci zong hi pah hi.

Thu khupna:Tedim ah i teen khopna panin pau tuamtuam kigawmin Tedim pau ong piang khia tawm hi lo hi. ‘Tedim’ kici kammal a om maa, Ciimnuai hun lai pekin ‘Lamzang / Losau mite pau’ ahi hi. 1910 kumin Tedim gam sung aa pau nam sawm a kiciamtehna sung ah ‘ Losau pau’ om hi. Tua Losau pau Zolai akibawl 1913 kum ciangin, ‘Kamhau pau’ ci-in min kilpia hi.1948 kum nunglam ciangin hun ong kikheelin, damdamin ‘ Tedim pau’ ci-in kikhel leuleu hi.

Mailam ah hih i ‘Tedim pau’ pen ‘ Zopau ‘ icih hun zong ong tung lei ding hi ci-in ka um hi.

Dr James Suan Za Dong
MB,BS., D.O. Sydney, Australia

 


Comments

Pual Thangpi Germany
08/02/2014 22:55

Dear Guai,

Dr. Dongno (James Suan Za Dong, Australia) Laigelh thupi in adikna khatciang om napi'n pawlkhat ngaihsut huai kasa hi. Pau (Language) leh Aw-kaih (Accent) khentheih kisam kasa hi. Tedim Pau icihtak ciangin Tedim Aw-kaih Zomipau (Zopau) cihna ahihi. Pau (Langugage) khat apianding baih hetlo in, ahizongin Aw-kaih khat apianding baih mahmah hi. English Pau (language) apian ding baih hetlo in, ahizongin English Accents tuamtuam apianding baih mahmah hi.

America gam bekbek ah zong English tektek zang napi in Aw-kaih atuam tek om hi: Eastern New England Accents, New York City Accents, Mid-Atlantic Accents, Coastal/Lowland Southern Accents, Inland/Mountain Southern Accents, Great Lakes English Accent, Upper Midwestern Accents, Midland American Accents, Western American Accents, Central Canadian Accents, Eastern Canadian Accents cihbangin Aw-kaih tuamtuam omhi. Tuabaan ah British accents, Australia accents, African English accents, Indian English accents cbi.. om lai hi.

Pu Tual Khan Lian cihmahbangin Tahan ah Zomipau Aw-kaih khat piang hi. Tahan ah Zomite ahonin kum 1960 kiim pan teen kipan hi. Tu in kum 50 pha pan hi. Sihzang, Teizang, Vangteh, Saizang, Ngalbual, Khuano, Buan, Losau, Dim, Lushei, Falam, Khalkha cbt.. ateen khopna pan Zomipau aw-khaih khat hong piangkhia hi.

Tedim khuapi kum 1840 pan Pu Kam Hau, Pu Mang Gin, Pu Khoi Lam te makaihna tawh gal akici khempeuh na nang/dal zo uh ahihmanin mun tuamtuam, khua tuamtuam pan hongbeel uhhi. Upadi (Kam Hau Upadi) tawh ki-ukin khua sung, veng sung, mi khat-le-khat kikal ah lungnuam takin na teengkhawm uhhi. 1889 kum Tedim khuapi Mikang kumpi in a sim hun dong kum 50 sungin Pau Aw-kaih khat apiang thei lua ahihi.

Losau aw-kaih leh Tedim aw-kaih kibanglo hi. Tua mahbangin Zomi Nam sungah Pau Aw-kaih tuamtuam akigen ciangin: Teizang aw-kaih, Saizang aw-kaih, Sihzang aw-kaih, Tedim aw-kaih, Losau aw-kaih, Dim aw-kaih, Zou aw-kaih, cbi.. ki gen hi. Tangthu i deihkaih luat leh zong Zomi bup huam Tangthu ahihmanin khangthakte in tangthu dik hong thei nawnlo ding ahihmanin kidop huai hi.

Paul Thangpi
Germany

Reply
Thang Thawn Tuang Zomi angvan
08/02/2014 22:56

Paul Thangpi gen diksa ing.
Tangthu icih pen ki deih khaih lua mahmah ta hi.

Tedim cih kammal kua pat khiat,
Tedim pen Lamzang khua panin ki sat kici,
Vangteh pan Lamzang khua kisat kici,
Ciimnuai pan Vangteh khua kisat kici,
Ciimnuai ah kampau pen Zokam ahihloh phamawh hi.

Ciimnuai pau cih ki za ngeilo aa, Zopau ici den hi.

Tedim pau cihbel Tedim khua sung pau ahihi.
Tedim tangthu pen Zomibup tangthu hilo hi.
Tedim khua tangthu pen khua khempeuh tangthu hilo hi.

Hih Tangthu thulu bek ki deihkaih ahih luatlam ki langlua hi.
Ki dop huai asa mah hi-ing.
Zomi sungah makaite khat peuh muh khilhna tawh,
Zomi min sangin Tedim min peuh a huangsak zaw ki om thei hi.

A beisa ciangciang aleh tutunga ki lehbulh lua mahmah sam hi.

Ngaihsun huai thuleh thuman ah din huai hi.

Thawn Tuang
Zomi Angvaan

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Pu Zokhai
08/02/2014 22:58

Sanggamte,

I' minam sung-ah akician sinsen-a saankipna, pomkipna akinei thei naai mahmahlo "PAUKAM {Language}" min vaai-pen tomkimcing tak-in hongsuut nuam-ing.

Zopau ahkl Zomi Paukam (Zomish or Zomi Language) sung-ah accent akici kampau awsuah akidang nam tampi om-a, I-theihsa ahihman-in I-suut nawnkei dinghi. Theihcian ding-a akisam-pen: Tedimpau (Tedim Language) hilo, Tedim Accent (Tedim Awsuah) ahihna agennuam I-hihi. English-ah accent (awsuah) tuamtuam om-a, awsuah (a-uun, a-eu., akawideuh, r asuakdeuh ,..) cihte a-om hang-in kitheihlah zahdong ding-in kilamdanglo ahihman-in paukam (language) khat-in huamkim-hi.

English pau-tawh apau ciatciat Asian te leh European te' accent atuamciat hi-a, Middle-east awsuah atuam hinapi, tua-pen English (British & American) te thupi ka-sak mahmah-pen, "Nang' accent maankei, khial, English hikei,...." cisese lo-in "Your English is good" ci zawsop laai-hi. Nampi' ta, khuapimi lungpuak I-cihpen hihbang ahihi. Zopau sung-ah accent tampi om-a, apau uhteh I-theih gige "Na' awsuah Losau ciik mahmah veh-e., Dim awsuah ciiklua veh-e., Tedim awsuah zangh maive, kisinve,...." cihte-tawh kikeelkii (opposite) liinlian ahihlam I-thei-hi.

Zopau-ah Tedim awsuah sin/zat sese kuullo, Lamka Khuapi-a milipphung (majority) ahi Paite awsuah sin/zat sese kuullo, Phaaitu-ah Zo awsuah sin/zat sese kuullo, Khuasak-ah Sihzaang awsuah sin/zat sese kuullo sa-in nangma' awsuah-tawh na-pau khempeuh hong naaktellua-uh ahihman-in abuldeuh, adawndeuh, apiideuh, anodeuh om tuanlo ahihna, Zomi sung-a awsuah khempeuh avekpi-in Zopau ahihna naakpi-in pomkip siamding piicinvaai leh laaipaizia-tawh akituakzaw ahihi.

Hih akidang AWSUAH (Accent) tuamtuam anei/azangh ei mite I-ki thuahkhopna (social interaction) athahaat naakleh damdam-in eima' original awsuah aciik mahmahte damdam-in hongneem ding-a, Zomi sung-ah kidanna sang-in kibatna leh zattaang siamna damdam-in (haanciam sese kuul kilkello sa-in) hongpiang lelding, hongpiang khin pianpian ahihlam phawkthak lehang-a, piicing ngaihsutna-tawh kisin toto lehang, Ziingni hongsuak hak nawnlo dinghi. Tua hi-a, paukam (language) ahilo dialectical accent-peuh language-a I-sehkhaak hetlohding kisam-hi. Kitel-in lamen hang-ei, akitel keileh suutsuut laai-ni!

Zomi Pasian' Thupha!

Zokhai

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