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Nungkik ding maw, mailamnawt ding?

Zogam Kawl kumpi ukhna sung a om Zomite in census vai tawh kisai-in nung diakin khenzak-a-vaihawm khumna (divide & Rule) policy i tungah hong kizat manin buaina leh kitelsiamlohna dong hong tun hi. Hih bang pen a deih huai lo ahih hangin, pelh thei zong hi lo hi. Ba’mcihleh ei tungah hong ukh nuamte vaisai hi mawk ahih manin, i hih thei tawm mahmah hi. Ahih hangin, khangmasa te khutma zuunin puahkhawm peuh leng gualzawhna ei a hong hi ding hi. Hi tawh kisai ka ngaihsutna a tomin hong luikhia nuam ing, ngaihsutna kibang lo zong om thei hi, tua ahih manin a phatuamzaw ding ngaihsutna tawh ngaihsutna kibanglo te kikum ding hi hang.

Minam min: tualsuak leh tualsuaklo

British ten India leh Kawlgam a lakkhit uh ciangin Zogam hong simh in tawlpi khat mah hong ukhkhum uh hi. Tua hun sungin, Zogam leh a sunga om mite tangthu, ciindan & tawndan, ngeina, adg., gelhin ciamteh uh hi. Mite khuakhat-leh khuakhat hiam behkhat-leh-behkhat cih bangin a bawngbawng in ki-om a, min tuamtuam tawh kisam in, khua pau tuamtuam khong tawh kiciamteh in zogam i luahna thu na limh gelh mahmah uh hi. Hih bangin minno tuamtuam tawh hong na ciamteh uh ahih manin tu dong koi min dik pen hiam ci-in kinial bawl den kha diildeel hi hang. Hih British te hunlai a, hong ciamtehna uh minte pen in i vekpi un hong huam zolo ahih manin minam min tawh kisai-in buaina kineih lawh hi. Min khat bek tawh hong na ciamteh bang hi leh bel buaihuai het lo kha ding hi um ing. Suah lam pan Kawlte tenna hong tawnin, Zogam simh ding a hong kuante in, Kawlte hong ciaptehna ‘Chin’ cih min tawh hong ciamteh pah ziau uh a, tua pen tu dong mah a zang nuam mahmah lai pawl om, a deih nawn hetlo pawl zong om in ki-el-kitotna hong piangsak lel dih hi. Hih dan mahin, tumlam pan a diakin Bengal leh Assam gam tawn a hong simhte in Bengali te hong ciaptehna ‘Kuki’ min tawh hong ciamteh leuleu uh a, minam min nih nei hong suah uh hi. Hih bang teng hangin a buai huai pi khat, minam min tawh kisai-in a tuak kha kihi khong hi.

 

Minam min tawh kisai-ah hi bang dinmunah ki-om ahih manin, minam min a huapkim zo ding ngaihsutna tawh, ei-leh-ei i kisapna/kiciamtehna, i minam min bang hi hiam ci-in hong kisut ciangin ‘Zo’ cih pen mah a kuapeuh in kisang tek khat hong suak hi. Ahih hangin identity politics ah i hong lut ciangin, thudik na ngawn kitel zo nawn lo hong suak hi. British te hunlai a, laigelh tuamtuam te i et kik ciangin ‘Zo’ pen ei-leh-ei i kisapna mah hi-in, a laigelhte pan un kimu thei hi. Abraham Grierson (1904:1) in linguistic survey India leh Kawlgam bub a bawln a report ah hih bangin na gelh hi, “ Chin i cih min pen amau-leh-amau kiciaptehna in zang lo uh hi, tua sangin Zo, Yo, Sho, leh adg., in kiciamteh zaw uh hi” na ci hi. Tua mah bangin, Captain F.M. Rundall (1891:20) in zong, “Chin cih koilai pan hong kipan hiam cih bel cian kei veng in, ka upmawh thu in gen leng Kawlte kiang pan hi-in ngaihsun ing, Chin ten Chin cih kammal theilo in, amau-leh-amau pen Zo ci-in kisam uh hi, khat sangin tamzaw pen Zote na ci uh hi” ci-in lai nagelh hi.

 

Tua ahih leh Zo pen bang cihna hi a, ei-leh-ei kiciaptehna in kizang dihdih hiam? cih dontna hong piang hi. Laigelhmi pawlkhatte in na sut uh ciangin ngaihsutna tuamtuam hong piang khia hi. Kimkhatte in Zo pen mipa khat min hi a, a suan-leh-khak te pen Zosuante ki hi pah hi, na ci uh hi. Hih pen tualai-in a sangthei mahmah pawl bang om hi. Ahih hangin lai neilo minam a dingin khang tampi khanggui kiciamteh zo ding mah hiam? Cih dotna om thei hi. Identity tawh kisai thusutsiate in bel, a dik ahi kei phial zong in amite in dik hi-man hi a ci-in a sankim nak uh leh pen, adik in kingaihsun hi mai hi. Kimkhatte leuleu in bel, i luah gam pen ‘Zo lua’ ahih manin Zogam kici a, a sunga bual mite pen Zo mite hi pah hi. Hi ngaihsutdan nihte kibang lo a, ahih hangin adiklohna zong kigen thei tuanlo khat hong suak hi. Hih bang teng banah, i nuntazia, pupa ngeina leh tawndan, pau-leh-ham, thu-leh-la, azu-ava, huangvulh-leh vulhloh ganta, khua-leh–tui, van-leh-lei, huih-leh-guah, adgte., i et ciangin ‘Zo’ cih pen a kizatna na tam mahmah hi. Zo-phualva, Zo-vakhu, Zo-lengthe, adg., tampi mah muh leh zak thei ding om zihziah hi. J.H. Cope (1932, March: 2) in zong hi bangin na gelh hi, “Kawl mihing-te in Zoju a duh mah mah uh hi”. Zozu i cih ciangin tanglai pan a, i pupa khutsuak ngiat hi a, tua pen a bawl minamte mah in deihbawl in minam min teek mah tawh na mekbelh uh hi ding hi. Zo ngeina ah, Zu pen a manphatzia pen gen sau kei leng zong tu dong mah a symbol in kizui lai ahih manin thei tek ding hi hang, gentehna zuthawl pia, zulup, pu zukhawlh, adg. I khua-leh-tui min te mah uh zong Zotung, Zophei, Zokhua, Zopimun, Zomun, Zotlang, Zolui, Zosiktui, adg, tua leh paakmin Zozaam cih bang dan tampi kimu thei kawikawi hi.

 

Zoham, Zopau, leh Zolai

Minam khanlawhna (nationalism) hong tun cil lai-in, Zo leh Zomi cih bangah buaina hong hi dingin khangmasate kuaman ngaihsun dingin ka um kei hi. Hih thu pen ka thusuutna pan ka muhdan in hong luikhia ding hing. Nidanglai, British te hong tunma-in pen kumpi kivaipuakzia, dan tawh kivaihawmna, state (thukham/dan tawh kivaihawm gamkhat), government, adg., cih te pen ei gamah kizanglo leh kithei kha nailo hi. Minam picing khat a om ding zong ngaihsutna om lo a, hausa a hathat in siah kai-in, mite ukh uh hi. Kiim-leh-paam ah zong tua bang ngen mah ahih manin, minam sangin hausa te tungah cihtakna (loyalty) kisuahin, amau a dingin gal kido hi bek hi.

 

British te hong tunma deuh in Zogam ah bang thupiang hiam cih sut leng tu a i buaina uh tampi kitel dingin lamen ing. Tua hun lai-in, mi teng pen Zo ci-in ei-leh-ei kiciamteh hi hang, tua ahih manin Captain F.M.Rudall in a laibu Siyin (Sihzang) dialect, sungah Chin kici loin ‘Zo’ i kicihzawkna thu gelh hi. Tedim leh Tongzang leh a kiim ah tengte pen Zo mah kici ngiatte uh a, tua tuabanah tenna mun minpua-in Teizang, Saizang, Sihzang, Vangteh, adg., ci-in zong kikhenna namkhat om sawn lai hi. Hih minte pen munmin panin paumin hong suaka, minam min tawh kitelkhial thei ding zahin hong om hi.

 

Sukte hong khan ma in pen Zo tawh kuapeuh na kiciamteh in, tua sungah khuamin-paumin hong suakte tawh a bawngbawng a kikhennadan khat zong na om hi. Tua ahih manin Zo cih pen na kitawisang nuam tek a, 1943 kum bang Zo Education Board na phuan thei uh hi. Kamhau Sukte hong khan tunglai-in Tedim, Tonzang, leh akiim a khuate ah Manlun leh Mantuang te hausa innpi na hi uh hi, tualai in bel tulai a Zo ham (Zou, Lamka lamte gelhdan) a kici pha diak pen bang bel kilim zat mahmah hi ding hi. Ba’mcihleh lapau, pau-upa, leh tangthu te pen Zo ham ngen tawh na gen se uh hi. En kikkik leng ni dang in Teizang pau zong Zo pau lak pan na lui mahmah kha ding hi. I Zolate pen Teizang kammal na tam mahmah hi, getn., in “Lamsai tawng e, ngual aw e, i sai thei liailiai na maw”. Tulai khangthak ten ‘ngual’ pen ‘gual’ in khengziau, ahih hang ‘tawng’ pen khensawm leng zong kilawm nawn lo se hi. Tua hi a, ukhpi hong kikhen dungzui-in pautang bang zong kikheng thei, ahih kei leh a thak na ngawn piang thei hi. Sanggam Luseite lakah duhlian pen Sailo Ukhpi in pautang ding a na zang ahih manin phattuam pih uh hi. Laisiangtho hong kileh sawnsawn ciangin pau picing pen hong suak pah hi.

 

Zolai ci a J.H. Cope in hong bawlsak pen Kamhau dialect pansan a kibawl hi a, ama ukhna gamsung a pautang a kizang pen hi pah hi. Hih pen zawhthawh bawlna tawh kibawl hi lo-in, bang pau tawh gelh ding ci-in thudot-kamkupna (consultation meeting) hong neih ciangin Kamhau dialect pansan in lai bawl ding cih thukimna nei uh hi. Tua pen Zolai hong kici hi. Hih bang democratic process zang a lai bawl cih pen leitung mun dangah kiza lo hi, i sanggam Luseite lakah zong om lo hi. Tua hunlai-in Kamhau dialect tawh Zo ham zong kilamdang nai hetlo hi, ahi hang consonant tawh kammal umtuah hong pat ciangin Zo ham tawh tawm hong kilamdang deuh bek hi lel hi. Gentehna khat en pak leng J.H.Cope in The Chin Hills News a bawl lai in a kammal zatte i et ciangin Zo ham ciil mahmah tampi kimuthei hi. Hih news pen a Zo min dingin, TEDIM KAM KI ZA NA LAI na ci hi. Kum sawm val bang lai bawlin hong puahphat khit ciangin, TEDIM THU KIZAKNA LAI ci-in kheng hi. Consonant zangin word (speech form) khen lamdangdan hong pan khia hi. Laigelhdan khantouh dungzui in kammal na ngawn hon kikheng danin muh theih hi.

 

Innpite in Zo min na liahkhuh

British te hong ukh ma in, Tedim, Tongzang leh a kiim-leh paam khuate ah Manlun & Mantuang innpite in na ukh uh hi. Hih bang hunlai takin Khanthuam leh a tapa Kamhau in Falam innpi bel hi, kum bangzah khit hiam ciangin Falam innpi panpihna tawh Mualbem khua la in, tua khittak teh Khanthuam in ukh pah hi. A sawt lo-in, Tedim khua a teng pawlkhatte in Kamhau hausa dingin cial hi, tua panin Kamhau in gamkek hong kipan hi. Hih pen Sukte dynasty cih theih ding zah in hong thupi hi. A sawtlo in Sukte innpi ukhna gam pen Falam leh Meitei gam kikal hong suak hi. Khanthuam te pata hong khan ciangin innpite (Manlun & Mantuang), nang zo lo-in Mal (North) lamah na kikhinto uh hi. Tua ahih manin, Manlun leh Mantuang beh pen Khaukual (Manipur) leh Tengnopal (Manipur) kiimah tu dong na tam mahmah uh hi. Kamhau hong khan ma-in, kuapeuh Zo in na kiciamteh hi. Carey & Tuck (1895: 140) in Chin Hills Gazetteer a hih bang in gelh hi, ‘Kamhow min in Zo tribal min hong liahkhuh hi’. Hi hangin Zo min pen Kamhau ukh hun sungin identity thupi pen hizo lo hi. Sukte dynasty in Zo ci a i kisapna pen hongliah khuh in, Kamhau mi cih ding kul-leh-kiphamawh hong suak hi. Lehman (1995: 70) in zong hih bangin gen hi, “Hakha ah Zo pen daipamte sapna in kizang hi”. Hih dan tawh kisai-in Carey & Tuck (1985:162) in hih bangin na gelh hi, “Yos (Zo) te pen Simhlam lam British Kumpi Ukhna gam pua lamah teng uh hi” ci hi. British Kumpi in Hakha innpite ukhna sung teng la khin ahih manin, a pualam a omte pen British kumpi in zong huamkha pah lo hi. Hih te pawl pen bang hangin Zo na kici uh hi ding hiam ci-in I sut ciangin, Haka dynasty ukhna nuai ah kihel khalo hi. Tua ahih manin, Zomi Baptist convention (ZBC) a kiphuat lai-in Zomi zatding nuam a sa lo khatin hih bangin gen hi, “Saya Hakha ah Zo pen a tuantual (tawta) phadiakte tungah ka zat uh hi” (Sing Khaw Khai, 1995: 70).

 

Tu ahih manin, Zo cih min pen ukhpite ukhna pualam a te sapna in kizang tangpi hi. Ba’mcihleh, ukhpite ukhna sung a om mite pen ukhpi te min tawh na kisam ziau uh hi. Hih bang hun pen British te hong tun madiak sawng teng hi se hi. Tomcikin gen ni ci leng, ukhpite (dynastic rule) in minam min ‘Zo’ cih pen liahkhuh in, a ukhna sung a om mite pen amau min (dynastic name) tawh amite kiciamteh zaw hi.

 

Minam veina hong lian: Zo pan Zomi

Leitung mite pen minamkhat-gamkhat (nation-state) danin na kikhen zihziah ta uh a, kumpite in dan tawh vaihawmna nei in, gammi hihna, minam hi na kician tak nei-in om uh ahih manin, minam kician khat hih ding kisam sakna hong piang hi. Hih modern hunah lutkhavat i hih manin, tangpi-tangta lungsim ngaihsutna ah zong minam (people) cih kammal pen thupi ngaihsutna hong lut hi. Hih modern huna kivaipuakna tawh kituak a ki-ukh i suah theihna ding in, i customary law (upadi) uh codify hong kiphamawh a, tua pen 1925 in kizo hi. Hih hunin people concept pen kiphawk panpan hih tuk hi, zong kizang nuam ta ahih manin, Zomi cih minam min danin Kamhau Upadi laibu sungah ‘kohmasak’ a gelhna ah Captain Pilot in na gelh hi. Capital letter zang dep in na gelh hi.

 

Tua ahih manin Chin cih na ding te ah zong Zomi cih bangin na kizang hi. Zomi pen English tawh letni ci leng ‘Zo people’ cihna hi a, political weight zong nei-in cultural identity bek hi nawn lo in, national leh political identity zong hong hi pah hi.

 

Kum 1960 leh cih khong lai-in sanggamte bangin, tulai kitheihmawh bawl phial leh uh zong, Zomi National Front (ZNF) na phuan khia uh hi. Ahih hangin hoih leh dik hi, a cih pen sang un, amau phattuampih zawk ding ngaihsutna in ‘Chin’ mah hong pi bawl kik leuleu uh hi.

 

Bangzahin “people” cih thumal in vang nei hiam i cihleh, kum 1989 a ILO Convention 169 kiselna tungtawn in kimu thei hi. Ni dangin ILO te in Indigenous “population” cih zang uh a, gam kumpi tuamtuam in haksatna om hetlo-in thukimna suaikai ziahziah hi. Ahi zongin “populations” cih pen “peoples” ah hong kilaih ciangin gamkumpite tampi–in suaikai nuam nawnlo uh hi. Ba’mcihleh, leitungbup thukhunpi khat, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966) in minam kician (peoples) te in “self-determination” (amau-leh-amau kivaipuakzia ding thukhensatna) right nei uh hi, na ci hi.

 

Tua ahih manin, khangmasate khutma pen zomlo-zuunlo in mailam kalsuan ding i sawm ciangin, ei lakah zong kitelkhialna hong piang bektham lo-in supna lianpi om hi. Tua hi a, nungkik lo-in mainawt ding hanciam ding hizaw hi. I khangthu a Zomi ci a i kilawh hun pen, national consciousness i lakah hong tun hun cihtheih hong suak hi. Tua ahih manin national leh political (ei deihna danin) identity neihna hong suak ahih manin, thupi mahmah hi. Zomi cih hong kizatma in hausa nuai leh ukhpite nuai khongah ki-om in, minam dan a vaisawm khop ding zong kingaihsun lo hi, zong kisamlo hi kha ding hi. Ahih hangin British colonial kumpi nuai-ah i om ciangin, leitung mite minam in na kikhen in, minamkhat-gamkhat cih bang pen a paidan khat ahih na hong kitheih ciangin minam kicain khat suah ding a kisawm hi pan hi. Bangzahta in ngeina-tawndan, beh-leh-phung, sisan na ngawn kibang leh zong minamkhat suah ding i sawm kei leh minam danin kuamah in hong san tuan lo ding a, zong kihi zo lo takpi ding hi. I kiim-i-kiang a, mite minam in hong kihuai in mailam kal hong suan khop uh ciangin ei zong tua bang mah a I om hong kisam hi. Tua ahih kei leh minam dang te ukhna nuai ah ki-om in, sal bangin suakta takin ki-innteng thei ngeilo ding hi.

 

Thukhupna

Tua hi a, Zomi cih hong kizat ciangin minam picing hihna hong kilangin, bektham lo-in politics zong ihih theih zah manin sai-in, suahtakna dong tup-leh-ngim in kinei thei ta cih na zong hong hi pah hi. Ngaihsutna tuamtuam pan bang kimu thei hiam i cih leh Zo pen i cultural leh traditional (primordial) identity hi a, Zomi pen political leh national identity ahih na kimu thei hi.

 

Dr. L. Lam Khan Piang


References:

  • Carey, B.S. & H.N. Tuck, 1983, Chin Hills: A History of the People, Our Dealing with them, their Customs and Manners, and a Gazetteer of the Country, Delhi: Cultural Publishing House (First published in 1895).
  • Cope, J.H., Tedim Thu Ki Zak Na Lai (The Chin Hills News) Mat Kha (March) 1923 (A Monthly News Paper)
  • Cope, J.H., 1937, ‘Sukte Tang Thu’ (History of Sukte), in Tedim Thu Kizakna Lai, monthly News Letter (July Issue).
  • Grierson, G. A., 1967, Linguistic Survey of India, Vol. III, Part-III, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass (First published in 1904).
  • Khai, Sing Khaw, 1995, Zo people and their culture: A historical, cultural study and critical analysis of Zo and its ethnic tribes, Khampu Hatzaw: Lamka, Manipur.
  • Lehman, F.K., 2009, ‘Ethnicity Theory, Linguistics and Chin Identity’, in K. Robin (ed.) Chin: history, culture and Identity, Delhi: dominant Pubs.
  • Rundall, F.M., 1891, Manual of the Siyin Dialect Spoken in the Northern Chin Hills, Rangoon.
 


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