By Tual Khaw Mang

Tuma kum nih lai-in Zonet sungah “Mangkang Kumpite ong khan ciangin Pu Hau Cin Khup Ukpi-in koih a, Siahtung Siahphei kaaisak hi,” ci-in a ki-at lai khat ka sim kha ngei hi. Hih thu tawh kizomin I teltheih kim ding, ka telgennop khat om hi. Mangkang Kumpite in, mi om muang khat, (Hau Cin Khup) samin siahtung siahphei kaaisak hi loin amau (Mangkang Kumpi) ong khan ciangin, amau ong khan ma le ong khan hun laitaka a vaihawm, a ukte sung pan, a suan a khak, a luah ding mi a kan uh ciangin Pu Hau Cin Khup mu a, amah pen a beh Sukte na hi kha hi. Pu Hau Cin Khup pen ama khan ciangin siahtung siahphei a kaai pan hi loin a pu a pate khang tampi in gam ukin siahtung siahphei a na kaai khin uh ahi hi. Amah, Pu Hau Cin Khup, (Sukte) khan ma tham lo, a pu Kam Hau khan ma-in zong beh dang tampi na maangin siah na kaai uhi. Tua banga a maang ngei, siah kaai ngei behte lakah, Suante beh, Buansing beh, Thawmte beh, Guite beh, Tawmbing beh, Gualnam beh, Manlun beh cih bangin a mun le a hun zui-in na maang ciatin siah na kaai kimciat uhi. Pu Hau Cin Khup khang panin Ukpi semin siah a kikaai pan hi lo hi. Hih bang a siahkaihna, a nam, a zah ciangtan, le a paulap bulphuh ngeina tawh siahkaihna pen Pu Hau Cin Khup’ pu ahi, Pu Kam Hau khang ciangin a kizang denden sate tungtawnin ngeina kip tawh kizui-a kikaai ahi hi. Tua Kamhau Upadi pen tuni dong mahin kizang lai hi. 
Hihci bangin Mangkang Kumpi in a uk ngei, a hawm ngeite mah, gam uk dinga a koihna in, amaute’ gam-uk siamna. a pilna uh ahi hi. Tua hunin Mangkang Kumpi in gam tampi, kum tampi sung na uk khin uh ahi manin a hawm ngei a gen ngeite mah zang le-uh mipi ki-uk zo cih, a muhna uh tawh kizui-in a na zat uh ahi hi. Saizang, Kapteel Ukpi Pu Thuam Thawng bang, Mangkang Kumpi tawh sial banin Thangpi-ah kilemna -thukimna bawl khin napi uh, Mangkang Kumpi lehdo-in Myo-ok suamna-ah na makai zawzen hinapi, ama ta, a suan a khakte mah vaihawmin na zang veve uhi. Khamtung gam vaihawmte in tua hun lai-in siahtung siahphei a na kaih pen, tua hun lai-in sum (dangka) kizang nai lo ahi manin lo pan a piang, khawhsa an - vaimim le taang tawh ahi zongin, thatang - tuuktha le khaaltha tawh ahi zongin, sa-phei saliang - innsa liang, gamsa liang tawh ahi zongin kipia a, thagui thatang zangin, khua-ul kaai-in kipia ahi manin kikhasiat ngaihsutin kimangngilh lo hi. A ukte in siah a kaih mah bangin a galte kiang pan daalin kem a, kial a tunteh vaak hi. Tua banga a beelte in a belhte uh ‘To’- in nei uhi. Tua bang a, gal hatte le a thukhual, a thumaante mi tampi in na beel a, Ukpi lian na suak hi. Tua hi a, mite a hu zo ding, a vaan zo dingin ‘To’ muanhuai a kizong hizaw hi. A taktakin ci leeng, nidang pek a kipanin tuhun dong, mun khempeuhah siah (tax) kipia hi. Tuhun mahmahin zong gam lian tampite in, a gam mite tungah siah (tax) tampi na la uhi. A Kumpite uh muanhuai, belh taak ahi manin ei mite tampi zong amau gamah gammi a ong san ding uh ut-in cihmawh tunna-in kinei hi. Tua manin Zomite ‘Thupha ngah Minamte hihang’ i kici liang hi.
Siahtung Siahphei Beina: Mangkang Kumpi in Kawlgam ong uk ciangin, Kawlgam Ki-ukna khen nih ong suah hi. Kawlgam Zaanglei teng pen Ministerial Burma kici-in, Shan, Chin, Kachin - Mualtung Gam a kici teng pen Frontier Areas Administration ci-in nam nihin ong uk hi. Leitung Galpi Nihna le gal ven zawh hun ciangin Bogyoke Aung San makai-in Mangkang Kumpi tung pan Suahtakna (Independence) laak ding a kisawm hun ciangin ‘Mualtung mi teng tawh kipawlin Independence la khawm ding’ ngimna tawh Mualtung mite ong pawlzot kawikawi hi.

Tua thu teng tawh kizomin a Khatveina, Pinlong Kikhop – 1946 March kha-in Shan Sawbwate makaihna tawh kibawl hi. Khamtung panin Hakha pan Chief Kio Mang, Falam pan Chief Hlur Hmung, Tedim pan Chief Pum Za Mangte pai-in kamphen dingin Falamte Kawl Sum Taikwel tonpih uhi. Tua kikhopna-ah Kawlgambup kipawl a, Independence laak ding khensatna taktak kinei zo lo hi. A diakdiakin ei Khamtung mite bang, Mangkang Kumpi mah ki-itin, kimuangin, Mualtung gam teng Mangkangte mah in a tuamin ong uk leh cih ngaihsutna kinei pian hi. Tua munah Chief Pum Za Mang in: “Bangbang i ci ta zongin, Kawl tawh kipawl kei leeng, Kalemyo pan a antang puak ding ong kikhaktan bek leh zong cimawh lua ni in, I paunak-a, ‘nga dongtuak’ a cih bang kha ni,” a cih ciangin Zaanglei le Mualtung teng kipawl ding lamah awnzaw uhi. Ahi zongin khensatna, thukimna laipi, letmat thuh nading ciang tun zo nai lo uhi.
A Nihveina Pinlong kikhop pen 1947 February kha kipat lamin Pinlong khua mahah kibawl hi. Khamtung gam panin Hakha pan Chief Kio Mang, Falam pan Chief Hlur Hmung, Tedim pan Chief Pum Za Mang ding hinapi, a cidam lo ahi manin, ama taangin Chief Thawng Za Khup pai a, kam phen dingin U Vum Khaw Hau in zui hi. Tua kikhopna-ah Bogyoke Aung San va pai-in ama makaih siamna mah tawh February 12 ni-in “Kawlgambup, Zaanglei le Mualtung Kipawl ding Thukimna Laipi Letmat thuh uhi. Tua thukimna tawh kizui-in, Kawlgam Zaanglei le Mualtung teng Kipawlin Independence la khawm ding; tua tawh kizui-in Democracy ngeina tawh ki-uk ding” cih thu kithukim uhi. Tua hi a, Ukpite in zong a siahkaih, a bum kaih teng bei ding cih, thei khin uh a, 1947 December kha-in Siatvatna - Compensation ngen dingin Yangon khua-ah taangmi (kusale) paisakin Kumpi tungah siau uhi. Tua hun a kipan Siahtung Siahphei bei nading a thu kipan hiamhiam ta hi.
Leitung Galpi Nihna (II World War) ong om ciangin Mangkang kumpite in Khamtung gam nusia-in India gamah nungkik uhi. A nungkik ding uh ciangin Chief Pum Za Mang tonpih sawm uh a, amah’n zui nuam loin busim hi. Galven khit, 1945 kum a kipanin Khamtungah gam-uk zumte kihong kik ta hi. Tua hun ciangin Chief Pum Za Mang in Mangkangte a zuihnop lohna hangin thu kibawlin Ukpi za panin tawlkhat sung ‘under suspension’-in kikoih hi. Tua hunin Kamhau gam sung a hausa makai pawlkhat in tua thu meetbawlin Tedim gam sung teng, amau khawk ciatah khenin siah kaih ding hanciamin siau ciat uhi. Hihte in siahtung siahphei bei ding a siau hi loin Ukpipa’ siahkaihte, amau teng in hawm ding a, siah a kaih theih nading uh a siau ahi uhi. Ahi zongin hun tawh kizui-in siahkaih bumkaihte bei ding cih thu om khin ta, cih a theih uh ciangin Siahtung Siahphei bei nadinga a vaihawm, a makai-in ong kineih uhi. Hih thu tawh kizomin Falam Mangpi Zum Lai, General Miscellaneous Proceedings No. 72/8T 1946-ah Report sungah 1. xxx, 2. xxx, 3. xxx,4. In all these proceedings, both Mr. Wilson and Mr. West were of the opinion that these frivolous and mostly false charges were brought up mainly with a view to have Chief Pum Za Mang removed from his Chieftaincy and his tribal area broken up into Independent petty Chieftaincies. From the perusal of the records and the existence of the memorials, to His Excellency the Government of Burma, there is no doubt that the only motive behind all these agitations was the desire to have petty Independent Chiefs and to break away from the control of Kam Hau Chief. While Chief Pum Za Mang may not have been entirely blameless in his dealings with the people in the past, I agree that the present charges after a lapse of some years were brought up at the instigation of the anti-Chief Pum Za Mang with the sole purpose of having him removed and his area broken up. It is quite well known that the Zos, Thados, Muizawls and Tuithangs have been trying to break away from the Kamhau rule. When the chances of their becoming Chiefs themselves appear gradually dimmer, they became the leader of commoners wanting no chiefs at all throughout the district.
5. It appears that their agitation is going to succeed. It is learned that Gov’t. is considering the question of the abolition of chiefs very seriously. In fact, the matter seems to be one of a foregone conclusion. Therefore, I do not see any necessity in examining in detail all these charges – brought up against Chief Pum Za Mang. The idea underlying the original order of the Deputy Commissioner and the Frontier Areas Administration to peruse the enquiries fully was to ascertain if Chief Pum Za Mang should be ‘officially’ re-instated once and for all. This consideration no longer exists in view of the probabilities that Chief’s post will be abolished and the present incumbents pensioned off. It is also likely that the present tribal divisions will be subjected to carving up to suit the demands of an administration by Intermediate Councils or by Myo-okes.
6. Therefore it seems to me that the wishes of Zos, Thados, Muizawl Headman, and Ex. Subedar Thang Za Kai of Tuithang will have been automatically met in the near future by Government’s orders. They will most probably have their own respective Intermediate Councils independent of any single chief. It is also a foregone conclusion that all customary dues will be abolished as from 1st January 1948.
Hih a tunga kigelh thute i et ciangin Zogamah Siahtung Siahphei a kikaihna hita leh a beina hita leh leitung pianzia le a hun zui-a a kikaai, a hun zui mah a a bei hi a, mi pawlkhat makaihna tawh a bei hi lo hi. Ahi zongin mailam Nainganzi paidan le mipi’ lungsim ngaihsutna zawh nading a geelsiam, a mu kholsiamte in a piang thu khatpeuh, hun khatpeuh meetbawl thei-in (a khuan a ye) laak siam hi. A taktakin tua hun lai-in Ukpite bang na navaak uh henla, zu ne bekin na nitum loin, na pilvang deuh uh hileh, “Kawlgambup Kipawl a, Independence kila ding; Democracy Ngeina tawh gam vaihawmna kinei ding; Khanggui kizom a ka siahkaih, ka bumkaihte uh beisak ding thukimin letmat thuh khin hi ung; Siatvatna - Compensation zong siau khin ung. Siahtung siahphei kaai nawn lo ding hi ung,” ci-in na taangko kha zenzen bang hileh, mipi’ lungsim ngaihsutna kilamdang zo mahmah ding hi. 
ZO MINAM NI ONG PIANKHIATNA - Ei Zomibup adinga Ni thupi pen ahi, Zo Minam Ni ong Pianna le ong Piankhiatzia bulpat dih ni. Kawlgam, Mualtung Gam (Shan, Chin, Kachin) vaite tawh kisai kantelna, April 1947 Maymyo-a kibawl, (Frontier Areas Committee of Enquiry)-a thu-khensatnate pen Kawlgam Governor-pa, a Vuanzite le Mangkang Kumpi mahmah in kipsak hi. Tua thukhensatna tawh kizui-in Paletwa pen, nidangin Rakhine gam tawh kigawm hi a, Khamtung gam panin Constituent Assembly (တိုင္း ၿပဳ ျပည္ ၿပဳ ျပည္ သူ႕လႊတ္ ေတာ္ )-ah 6, 1947 May kha sungin kusale – taangmi kipaisak hi. Tedim panin Capt. Mang Tung Nung, Falam panin U Sa Vut, Hakha panin U Ngun To, Kanpetlet (Mindat) panin U Vawmthu Mawng, Paletwa panin U That Hlaing-te kiteelin, Matupi panin kusale om zo nai lo ahi manin Dy. Counsellor U Vum Kho Hau in tua mun la hi. Kawlgam ‘Suahtakna’ – Independence I ngah ciangin U Sa Vut le U Ngun To-te Gam-uk Vuandok lamah pai uhi. Tua ciangin U Ngun To’ munah U Lian Thum ong lut a, U Sa Vut’ munah U Tial Dum ong lut hi. Tua hun ciangin Matupi taangmi dingin U Sang Ning zong ong tung ta a, Khamtung gam vaihawmna – Ministry of Chin Affairs pen amau teng in tavuan ong la ta hi. Kawlgam Independence zong kingah khin ta a, mailamah Parliamentary Democracy tawh kikalsuan ding hi ta hi. တိုင္းၿပဳ ျပည္ၿပဳ ျပည္ သူ႕လႊတ္ ေတာ္ kusale-te zong mailamah Hluttaw taangmi kiteelna-ah kihel nuam ding, mipite’ mee mah deih ding ahi manin, party zong ong neih uh kul ta hi. Tua munah Tedim panin Captain Mang Tung Nung makai-in Khamtung Suahtak Vaihawm Pawl – KSVP ci-in Party min phuak hi. Ukpi Pum Za Mang makai-in Thu Hoih Vaihawm Pawl – THVP ci-in Party min phuak hi. Khamtung gam Vuanzi U Vawmthu Mawng makai-in 1948 February 20, 21, 22 sung teng, Falamah kikhoppi khat kibawlin hun kilaihna, siahtung siahphei beinate taangpi tungah kipulaak hi. Tua lai munah a kikhawm mi tul nga - 5,000 pha kci hi. Nainganzi tawh kisai mipi kikhopnate tuhun dongin 10 tawh hawm leeng a taktak tawh kituakzaw hi. Ahi zongin hih pen record a kiciamteh ahi mah bangin a phazah bel thupi lua lo hi. Tua hunin Zo Minam Ni cih min kiphuakpah nai lo hi. 1950 kum October ni 9 ni, Chin Affairs Council kikhopna-ah Zo Minam Ni dingin 1948 February 20 ni kikipsak hi. 1951 February 20-22 sung a khatveina Zo Minam Ni Pawipi, Mindat khua-ah kibawl hi. Tua ni-a kipanin tuni dongin kum 60 val, kum simin Zo Minam Ni kibawl hi. A kibawl sim mahin, Zomi kithutuak a kipumkhat nading, I minam le I lai, I paute mangthangsak loh nading, gam khantoh nading cihte sangin Siahtung Siahphei thu, Ukpi thu, Sukte beh langpan nading thute mah kitamgen pen hi. Nidang a siahkaihna le siah piaknate pen mi khatpeuh, beh khatpeuh in amau ut thu tawh a kivaihawm hi loin a khuahun zui-a kizang ahi manin kuamah kimawhsak nading om lo hi. Tua ahi manin a beisa thute taangthu-in koihin ki-it kilem nading thute, kithutuak a kipumkhat nading thute, gam khantoh nading thute ngaihsut-huai, genhuaizaw ka sa hi.
Hih thute I ettel ciangin Sukte khan ma a, a khang , a vaihawm peuhmah pen galhaang, vaihawm siam, gal le sa lauhuai panin mipite a hu zote, Ukpi na suak uhi. Sukte Ukpi ong suah ciangin Tualgal, khua khat le khua khat kido kithahnate ong bei-in mipite in zong nuntak nading lokhawh mabante lungmuangtakin sem thei ta hi,” ci a kigen ngeite zong kiza ngei kimciatin um ing. Tua hun laitak mahmahin zong Kawlgam hitaleh gamdang tuamtuamte-ah hitaleh a kumpite uh, a ukpite uh ’gamtat thei mahmah uhi. Sukte khan ma-a a vaihawm masa pawlkhat bang in “hei tang, tutang peuh a khot ding ciangin singkhuah bawk taangin mi’ ngaltaak peuh-ah khong” ci-in kigen ngei hi. Tua bek hi loin hun kilaih sung a, vaihawm (council) pawlkhat bang in a mipihte thu a sit ciangin “bungbu khai-in a nuai-ah zasan halin a khu diiksak kawmin sit” cih kiza ngei hi. Sukte Ukpi ong khan khit ciangin kum tampi, khang tampi sungah tua bang liang tatsiatna kiza ngei lo hi. Kum thum sung guah zu loin kialpi a tun hun sungin Pu Kam Hau le Pu Za Paute in a saiha le a sialte uh zuakin Kawlzang panin buhtang lei-in a mipihte puksihna ding pan hon hi, cih bel a kigen thu khat hi. Pu Kam Hau in Kamhau Upadi na bawl a tuni dongmahin kizang lai hi. Siahkaih, Bumkaih, Tuuktha, Khaaltha, Innsa liang, Gamsa liang cihte zong a thu, a la, a hang, paulap khat zui-a a na kaih ahi hi. Tu-a kipan Zo Minam Ni I bawl ciangin ki-it kilem nading, kithutuah nading, I vekpi-in maa pang khawmin, khantoh nading thu vive I gen nadingin a kuamapeuh kong hanthawn nuam hi.



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